Wine grapes that are long gone from the Bordeaux blend.

Before the wrath of phylloxera hit the French department of Gironde and commune of Libourne, the wine region of Bordeaux had over three dozen varieties of grapes planted and available for winemaking. As with many other natural disasters, there is a simple process of elimination. Animals and plants may become extinct, or reduced to a endangered level.  Grape growers that did not have the financial capabilities to replant, went out of business. Châteaux that did, perhaps decided to only keep the noble grapes to producer higher quality wines. Throughout the world there are thousands of grapes, many on the endangered list and in risk of vanishing forever. They are being replaced by the common vitis-vinifera vines, clones, hybrids we are accustomed today.

In 1874  the third edition of the book that defined Bordeaux was released by Édouard Féret. "Bordeaux et Ses Vins" and lists dozens of grape varieties that were cultivated during this time. The first edition of this book was printed in 1850 and was reference for the 1855 classification. 18 editions followed. Read more about Édouard Féret in this Winespectator article

I was impressed with the list of so many varieties I had never heard of. I even attempted to find some of the origins and DNA information in Jancis Robinson's "Wine Grapes" massive book with 1368 varieties, and few, if any were listed. The only other source I found was an archived book published in 1882 and available online :


Today Bordeaux AOP for white, rosé, red and crémant de Bordeaux can use the following varieties.

*Styles and Encépagement:

  • Blanc: 
    • Principal Varieties: Min. 70% combined Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Gris, and Muscadelle
    • Accessory Varieties: Max. 30% combined Ugni Blanc, Merlot Blanc, and Colombard
  • Rosé/Clairet: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Cot (Malbec), Merlot, Petit Verdot, Carmenère
  • Rouge/Claret: As for Rosé
  • Bordeaux "Haut-Benauge" Blanc: Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Gris, and Muscadelle


In 1874 the names of the grapes and their synonyms: 

 Les Cépages de vignes Rouges (red grapes)

Les Cabernets

  • Cabernet Sauvignon. synonyms Petite Cabernet (Médoc), Vidure-Sauvignonne or Petite Vidure (Graves), Petite Bouchet, Bouchet-Sauvignon (Saint-Émilion), Marchoupet (Castillon), Carbouet (Potensac)
  • Le Gros Cabernet. synonyms: Cabernet-Franc, Carmenet, Gamput (Médoc), Grosse-Vidure (Graves), Carbouet (Brède) Gros-Bouchet (Saint-Émilion), Breton (Loire), Véronais, Véron (Saumur, Nièvre) Arrouya (Pyrénées)
  • La Carmenèresynonym: Cabarenelle

Merlotsynonyms: Vitraille, BIgney, Alicante, Crabulet

Malbecsynonyms: Malbeck, Lucikens (Médoc), Groudoux, Étranger, Estrangey, Noir de Pressac, Mazuat, Gros Noir, Cahors, Balouzat, Pied-rouge, Pied-de-Perdrix, Cote Rouge, Teinturin, Terranis, Boucharès, Guillan, Ilourcat, Moussin, Moussac, Pied-doux

Verdotsynonym: Carmelin (Bergerac) and the sub-types: Petit-verdot, Verdot-de-Palus, Verdot-Colon

Sirhasynonym: not mentioned, but associated with Hermitage and "syrah"

Pignon - two types: Gros Pignon and Petite Pignon (Médoc), Gros et Petit Boutignon (Blaye), Parde and Pardotte (Saint Macaire)

Petite chalosse noire

Mancinsynonyms: Maussein, Tarney, Tarny, Coulant, Coulon-timbré, Gros-coulon, Petit-Fou, Prueras, Prunelas



Grapput - synonym: Bouchalés (Bazas)

Penouille - synonyms: Pelaouille (Graves), Penouille (Médoc)

Cruchinet synonyms: Doux-Same, Chausset

Teinturier - synonyms: Alicante, Noireau (Gironde), Tinta Francisca (Portugal) Ramé-noir, Foerber (Rhine)

Fer synonyms: Camerouge, names given when cultivated in small quantities

Massouletsynonyms: Massouquei (Gironde), Pineau (Burgundy), Auvernat-Franc (Orléans)


Bouton-Blanc - synonym: Saint-Macaire

Grosse Mérille




Panereuil, Queue Rouge, Bois-Droit





Les Cépages de vignes Blanches (white grapes)

Sémillon - synonyms: Colombier (Gironde), Chevrier (Dorgogne)

Sauvignon - synonyms: Surin-Fié (Loire), Blanc-Fumé (Nièvre), Servonien or Savagnin (Burgundy), Servoyen (Yonne)

Muscadelle - synonyms: Musquette, Raisinotte, Angelicaut, Catape, Guepus, Muscat-Fou, Guilan-Doux, Auvernat-Blanc (Orléans) 




Enrageat - synonyms: Enrageade, Folle-Blanche (Cognac) Piquepout or Piquepouille (Armagnac) , Grais, Rebauche, Bouillon, Plant-de-Dame

Pruèras or Prunelat - synonyms: Chalosse, Oeuil de tour, Blanc-pic

Blanquette - a variety of Chasselas

Rochalin ou Blayais